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About the use of tower crane "ten not hanging"


Release time:

2020-05-05

塔机在建筑施工作业中作为垂直运输机械使用很普遍,已成为建筑施工中不可缺少的建筑机械。作为一种大型施工机械,从安全角度分析有以下特点:1、通常具有庞大的结构和比较复杂的机构,能完成一次起升运动、一次或几次水平运动。   2、所吊运的重物多种多样,载荷是变化的。   3、需要直接在较大的范围内运行,活动空间较大。   4、暴露的、活动的零部件较多,且常与吊运作业人员直接接触(如吊钩、钢丝绳等),其潜在许多偶发的危险因素。   5、作业环境复杂。   6、作业中常常需要多人配合,共同完成一项操作。   上述诸多危险因素的存在,决定了起重伤害事故较多,并且塔机一旦发生事故,不仅财产损失而且大多数时候有人员伤害,影响较大,因此已把它归入特种设备管理,从它的制造、安装、使用、维修都发布了相关的规范和规程,相关的部门或单位对其作业中的危险性总结出了起重作业“十不吊”规定,只要坚持了这“十不吊”原则,塔机事故就可以最大限度地避免。但实际生产中具体为哪“十不吊”,业内目前还没有一个科学、具体、实用的版本,塔机相关规范中也没有特别的规定。本文尝试对我地各种版本及塔机的各种规范进行分析归纳,并在此基础上提出关于塔机“十不吊”具体规定,供大家参考。   现将我地流传的相关“十不吊”列举如下:   一、成都市安全监督管理站发布的《施工现场安全管理体系》一书中的塔机“十不吊” :   1、起重臂和起吊的重物下面有人停留或行走不准吊。   2、起重指挥应由技术培训合格的专职人员担任,无指挥或信号不清不准吊。   3、钢筋、型钢、管材等细长的材料和多根物件必须捆扎牢靠,单头“千斤”或捆扎不牢靠不准吊。   4、多孔板、料斗、手推翻斗车不用四点或大模板外挂板不用卸甲吊时不准吊。预制钢筋混凝土楼板不准双拼吊。   5、吊砌块必须使用安全可靠的砌块夹具,吊砖必须使用砖笼,并堆放整齐,木砖、预埋件等零星物件要用盛器堆放稳妥,叠放不齐不准吊。   6、楼板,大梁等吊物上站人不准吊。   7、埋入地里的板桩、井点管等以及粘连、附着的物件不准吊。   8、多机作业应保证起吊重物距离不小于3m,在同一轨道上多机作业,无安全措施不准吊。   9、六级以上强风不准吊。   10、斜挂重物或超过机械允许荷载不准吊。   上述中第一条,“在臂架下面有人停留或行走不准吊”,在施工现场中这一条肯定是无法避免的,因为当塔机吊物旋转过程中几乎要覆盖整个现场,臂架下肯定会有人停留或行走;“吊起的重物下面有人停留或行走不准吊”中已经自相矛盾,已经起吊了还要求不准吊,所以这一条无多大意义。第四条中,料斗大概是塔机自配的专用料斗,这必须用四点吊,但手推翻斗车怕是禁止用来吊运材料的了,所以这一条也应该修改;其余几条只说明了一些特殊性,不完全。   二、成都市安全监督管理站出的《民工夜校读本》中的塔机“十不吊”   1、超载和斜拉不准吊。   2、散装物装得太满或捆扎不牢不准吊。   3、无指挥、乱指挥和指挥信号不明不吊。   4、吊物边缘锋利无防护措施不吊。   5、吊物上站人和堆放零星物件不吊。   6、埋在地下的构件不准吊。   7、安全装置失灵不准吊。   8、雾天或光线阴暗看不清吊物不准吊。   9、高压线下面或离高压线过近不准吊。   10、六级以上强风不吊。   上述中对小型物件如砖块、箍筋等无要求,第八条的雾天与第十条都属于同类性质“恶劣天气”,所以需补充和完善。   三、四川省安全生产管理局出的培训教材《建筑施工现场安全生产管理体系》中的塔机“十不吊”:   1、超负荷不吊。   2、指挥信号不明、光线不明、重量不明不吊。   3、吊索和附件捆绑不牢、不符合安全要求不吊。   4、歪拉斜挂、埋在地下物件不吊。   5、安全装置不灵不吊。   6、靠近高压线又无可靠安全措施不吊。   7、物件上站人或上有活动物品不吊。   8、易燃易爆品不吊。   9、带棱角快口物件未垫好不吊。   10、违章使用、违章指挥时不吊。   上述中同样对小型物件无要求,对恶劣天气只在第一条中说了一下“光线不明”,也不完善,第八条中“易燃易爆品”较笼统,比如施工现场中的木方、泡沫等都属于易燃易爆品,那肯定是要吊的,还有氧气、乙炔瓶在主体施工时二、三十层楼如不用塔机吊上去,用人抬上去吗?这条也值得商榷。第十条中“违章使用”一项较笼统,本身十不吊就是指出哪些是违章使用,所以这一条是凑上去的。   四、塔机相应规范中的“不吊”(或禁止作业的项目):   1、《建筑机械使用安全技术操作规程》(JGJ33-2001)中第4.4.40条要求:作业中如遇六级及以上大风或阵风应立即停止作业;   2、《塔式起重机操作使用规程》(JT/T100-1999)中第3.1.10条要求:在作业中有下列情况之一者,司机不得操作起重机,   (1)、指挥信号辨别不清;(2)、会造成事故的指挥;(3)、不符合起重机性能的指挥。   3、第3.1.11条,在作业中有两个或两个以上的指挥人员,只有一个指挥人员发出信号时,方可操作。凡是有两个或两个以上指挥人员同时发出信号时,不得操作。   4、第5.2.1条:司机必须熟悉所操作的起重机的性能,并应严格按说明书的规定作业,不得斜拉、斜扯重物、吊抜埋在地下或粘连在地面、设备上的重物以及不明重量的重物。   5、第5.2.6条:司机不得操作安全装置失效、缺少或不准确的起重机进行作业。   6、第5.2.8条:不允许起重机超载或超风力作业。   7、第5.2.13条:不得起吊带人的重物,禁止用起重机吊运人员。   8、5.2.16条:作业中遇下列情况应停止作业:(1)、恶劣气候,如大雨、大风、大雾,超过允许工作风力等影响安全的作业;(2)、起重机出现漏电现象;(3)、钢丝绳磨损严重、扭曲、断股、打结或出槽;(4)、安全保护装置失效;(5)、各传动机构出现异常现象和异响;(6)、金属结构部分发生变形;(7)、起重机发生其他妨碍作业及影响安全的故障。   根据上述,第一条指的恶劣天气;第二、三条指的是指挥信号方面;第四条指的是起重量方面的;第五条指的是安全装置方面;第六条指的是指的是起重量和天气方面;第七条指的是不准载人;第八条的第一项指的是天气方面,后面几项指的是安全装置方面。   五、根据以上分析,提出笔者总结的“十不吊”:   1、歪拉、斜挂重物不吊。   2、超起重机额定负荷不吊。   3、埋在地下或粘连在地面、设备上的重物及不明重量的重物不吊。   4、无指挥、乱指挥和指挥信号不明不吊。   5、小件物品未用吊笼(蓝)装或未装平整、超过吊篮边沿不吊。   6、起吊物上站人或上有活动物品不吊。   7、起吊物和附件捆绑不牢或捆绑不符合安全要求不吊。   8、吊物边缘锋利、带棱角等无防护措施不吊。   9、安全装置失灵不吊。   10、大雨、大雪、大雾、六级以上大风等恶劣天气不吊。   以上就是笔者根据各种版本及相关规范总结出来的“十不吊”, 有不足之处请大家批评指出,互相学习,或者经过本文的抛砖引玉,共同商讨,使塔机的“十不吊”形成规范性文件。

About the use of tower crane

Tower crane is widely used as vertical transportation machinery in building construction, and has become an indispensable construction machinery in building construction. As a large-scale construction machinery, from the perspective of safety analysis has the following characteristics:

It usually has a huge structure and a more complex mechanism, which can complete a lifting movement, one or several horizontal movements.

2, the lifting of a variety of heavy objects, the load is changing.

3, need to operate directly in a larger range, the activity space is larger.

4. There are many exposed and active parts, and they are often in direct contact with lifting operators (such as hooks, wire ropes, etc.), which are potentially accidental risk factors.

5, the operating environment is complex.

6. Many people are often required to cooperate in the operation to complete an operation.

The existence of the above-mentioned risk factors determines that there are many lifting injury accidents, and once the tower crane has an accident, not only property losses but also personnel injuries most of the time, which has a great impact. Therefore, it has been classified into special equipment management, and relevant specifications and regulations have been issued from its manufacturing, installation, use and maintenance, the relevant departments or units of the danger of its operations summed up the lifting operation "ten not hanging" provisions, as long as the "ten not hanging" principle, tower crane accidents can be avoided to the maximum extent. However, in actual production, there is no scientific, specific and practical version in the industry, and there are no special provisions in the relevant specifications of tower crane. This paper attempts to analyze and summarize the various versions of our country and the various specifications of tower cranes, and on this basis puts forward the specific regulations on tower cranes "ten not hanging" for your reference.

The relevant "ten not hanging" circulated in our place are listed as follows:

1. the tower crane "ten not hanging" in the book "Construction Site Safety Management System" issued by Chengdu Safety Supervision and Management Station ":

1. No one is allowed to hang or walk under the lifting arm and the lifting weight.

2, lifting command should be qualified by technical training of full-time personnel, no command or unclear signal is not allowed to lift.

3, steel bars, steel, pipes and other slender materials and multiple objects must be tied firmly, single head "a thousand pounds" or tied firmly are not allowed to hang.

4, perforated plate, hopper, hand-pushed dump truck without four points or large template external plate without unloading crane are not allowed to hang. Prefabricated reinforced concrete floor slabs are not allowed to be hung together.

5, hanging blocks must use safe and reliable block fixture, hanging bricks must use brick cages, and neatly stacked, wooden bricks, embedded parts and other sporadic objects to use containers stacked securely, stacked not allowed to hang.

6, floor, girder and other hanging objects standing on people are not allowed to hang.

7, buried in the ground sheet pile, well point pipe, etc. and adhesion, attached objects are not allowed to hang.

8, multi-machine operation should ensure that the lifting weight distance is not less than 3m, multi-machine operation on the same track, no safety measures are not allowed to hang.

9, more than six strong wind is not allowed to hang.

10. Hanging heavy objects obliquely or exceeding the allowable mechanical load is not allowed to be lifted.

The first one of the above, "someone staying or walking under the boom is not allowed to hang", is definitely unavoidable in the construction site, because when the tower crane lifting object rotates to cover almost the whole site, someone will definitely stay or walk under the boom; "someone staying or walking under the lifting object is not allowed to hang" is already contradictory, and it has been lifted and it is not allowed to hang, so this article doesn't make much sense. In Article 4, the hopper is probably a special hopper for tower cranes, which must be lifted at four points, but the hand-pushed dump truck is even forbidden to be used for lifting materials, so this one should also be revised. The other articles only illustrate some particularities and are incomplete.

The tower crane "ten not hanging" in the "night school reader for migrant workers" issued by Chengdu safety supervision and management station in 2"

1, overload and oblique pull are not allowed to hang.

2, bulk is too full or bundled is not firmly not allowed to hang.

3, no command, disorderly command and command signal unknown do not hang.

4, hanging objects with sharp edges without protective measures do not hang.

5, hanging objects on the station and pile up sporadic objects do not hang.

6, buried in the ground components are not allowed to hang.

7, safety device failure is not allowed to hang.

8, foggy or dark light can not see clearly hanging objects are not allowed to hang.

9, under the high-voltage line or too close to the high-voltage line are not allowed to hang.

Strong winds above level 10 and level 6 will not be hoisted.

There are no requirements for small objects such as bricks and stirrups in the above. Foggy days in Article 8 and Article 10 belong to "bad weather" of the same nature, so they need to be supplemented and improved.

3. the tower crane "ten not hanging" in the training material "Construction Site Safety Production Management System" issued by Sichuan Provincial Administration of Work Safety ":

1, overload does not hang.

2. The command signal is unknown, the light is unknown, and the weight is unknown.

3. The slings and accessories are not tightly bound and do not meet the safety requirements.

4, slanting and hanging, buried underground objects do not hang.

5, the safety device is not working, do not hang.

6, close to the high-voltage line and no reliable safety measures do not hang.

7, objects standing on people or moving items do not hang.

8, flammable and explosive goods do not hang.

9, with edges and corners fast mouth objects are not pad not hanging.

10, illegal use, illegal command does not hang.

The above also has no requirements for small objects. For bad weather, only "unknown light" is mentioned in the first article, which is not perfect. The "flammable and explosive materials" in the eighth article are more general. For example, wood and foam in the construction site are flammable and explosive materials, which must be hoisted. If oxygen and acetylene bottles are hoisted 2. the 30th floor during the main construction, will they be hoisted by people? This article is also debatable. In Article 10, the item "illegal use" is more general, and the ten non-hanging itself is to point out which are illegal use, so this article is put together.

4. tower crane corresponding specifications in the "not hanging" (or prohibited operation of the project):

1. Article 4.4.40 of the Technical Operation Regulations for Safety of Construction Machinery (JGJ33-2001) requires that the operation shall be stopped immediately in case of strong winds or gusts of level 6 or above;

2. Article 3.1.10 of the "Regulations for Operation and Use of Tower Cranes" (JT/T100-1999) requires that the driver shall not operate the crane under any of the following circumstances during operation,

(1), the command signal is not clear;(2), will cause the accident command;(3), does not conform to the crane performance command.

3. Article 3.1.11, there are two or more commanders in the operation, and only one commander sends a signal before operation. When two or more commanders send signals at the same time, they shall not operate.

4. Article 5.2.1: The driver must be familiar with the performance of the crane being operated, and shall operate in strict accordance with the provisions of the instructions. It is not allowed to obliquely pull, obliquely pull heavy objects, lift heavy objects buried in the ground or adhered to the ground and equipment, and heavy objects of unknown weight.

5. Article 5.2.6: The driver shall not operate the crane with invalid, missing or inaccurate safety device.

6. Article 5.2.8: Crane is not allowed to overload or exceed wind operation.

7. Article 5.2.13: It is not allowed to lift the heavy objects of the hoisting person, and it is forbidden to lift the personnel by crane.

8. Article 5.2.16: The operation shall be stopped in the following situations during the operation:(1) Severe weather, such as heavy rain, strong wind, heavy fog, and operations that affect safety beyond the allowable working wind force;(2) The crane has leakage phenomenon;(3) The wire rope is seriously worn, twisted, broken, knotted or grooved;(4) The safety protection device fails;(5), the transmission mechanism of abnormal phenomena and abnormal sound;(6), the metal structure part of the deformation;(7), the crane has other obstacles to the operation and affect the safety of the fault.

According to the above, article 1 refers to bad weather; articles 2 and 3 refer to command signals; article 4 refers to lifting weight; article 5 refers to safety devices; article 6 refers to lifting weight and weather; article 7 refers to no manned; article 8 refers to the first item refers to the weather, and the following items refer to safety devices.

According to the above analysis, the 5. puts forward the author's summary of the "ten not hanging":

1, tilt, oblique hanging heavy objects do not hang.

2, over the rated load of the crane does not lift.

3. Heavy objects buried in the ground or adhered to the ground and equipment and heavy objects of unknown weight shall not be lifted.

4, no command, disorderly command and command signal unknown do not hang.

5. Small items are not installed in the hanging cage (blue) or are not installed evenly, and do not hang beyond the edge of the hanging basket.

6, lifting objects on the standing person or on the moving items do not hang.

7, lifting objects and accessories binding is not firm or binding does not meet the safety requirements do not lift.

8. No lifting without protective measures such as sharp edges and angular edges.

9, safety device failure does not hang.

10. Heavy rain, heavy snow, heavy fog, strong winds above level 6 and other severe weather will not be suspended.

The above is the "ten non-hanging" summarized by the author according to various versions and relevant specifications. If there are any shortcomings, please criticize and point out, learn from each other, or through this article, discuss together, so that the "ten non-hanging" of tower crane will form a normative document.

Tag:

Huaxia Heavy Industry

Mainly engaged in the production and sales of tower cranes, lifts and related accessories.

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